SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers (Part 1)

1. Difference between TRUNCATE and DELETE
                - Truncate is DDL command so can't be rolled back while Delete is a DML command so it                can.
                - Truncate keeps the lock on table while Delete keeps the lock on each row.
                - Truncate resets the counter of the Identity column while Delete doesn't do so.
                - Truncate does not fire trigger but Delete fires trigger.
                -Truncate removes all rows by de allocating data pages allocated to the table while Delete           removes rows one by one.
2.  What are the advantages a stored procedure?
                Stored Procedures are precompiled and stored in the database. This enables the database to    execute the queries much faster. Since many queries can be included in a stored procedure,               round trip time to execute multiple queries from source code to database and back is            avoided.
3.  What are the advantages and disadvantages of views in a database?
                Advantages:
·         Views don't store data in a physical location.
·         The view can be used to hide some of the columns from the table.
·         Views can provide Access Restriction, since data insertion, update and deletion is not    possible with the view.
Disadvantages:
·         When a table is dropped, associated view become irrelevant.
·         Since the view is created when a query requesting data from view is triggered, its a bit slow.
·         When views are created for large tables, it occupies more memory.
4. What  is the ACID property?
                ACID (Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability
·         Atomicity is an all-or-none rule for database modifications.
·         Consistency guarantees that a transaction never leaves your database in a half-finished state.
·         Isolation keeps transactions separated from each other until they are finished.
·         Durability guarantees that the database will keep track of pending changes in such a way that the server can recover from an abnormal termination and committed transactions will not be lost.
5. What are the different types of triggers?
                There are three types of triggers
·         DML trigger
                There are two kinds of DML triggers
                a. Instead of Trigger
                Instead of Triggers are fired in place of the triggering action such as an insert, update, or
                delete.
                b. After Trigger
                After triggers execute following the triggering action, such as an insert, update, or delete.
·         DDL trigger
                This type of trigger is fired against DDL statements like Drop Table, Create Table, or                    Alter Table. DDL Triggers are always after Triggers.
·         Logon trigger
                This type of trigger is fired against a LOGON event before a user session is established to            the SQL Server.
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